[From "Speech in Congress on the Jay Treaty," in James Madison, Writings (New York: The Library of America, 1999), pp. 574-75. Source: The Papers of James Madison, vol. 16 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1989), pp. 291-306).]
". . . He [i.e. Madison] wished as little as any member could, to extend the analogies between the two governments [i.e. of the United States and of Great Britain]. But it was clear that the constituent parts of two governments might be perfectly heterogeneous, and yet the powers be similar. At once to illustrate his meaning, and give a brief reply to some arguments on the other side, which had heretofore been urged with ingenuity and learning, he would mention as an example, the power of pardoning offences. This power was vested in the President. It was a prerogative also of the British king. And in order to ascertain the extent of the compound and technical term 'pardon' in our constitution; it would not be irregular to search into the meaning and exercise of the power in Great Britain; yet where is the general analogy between an hereditary sovereign, not accountable for his conduct, and a magistrate, like the President of the United States, elected for four years, with limited powers, and liable to impeachment for the abuse of them."