No. 129 of the bi-monthly French publication Manière de voir included a chronology of the development of the European Union, the failing political amalgamation whose unelected leaders are currently imposing their will upon the populations of Europe.[1]  --  It is translated in its entirety below....




Manière de voir, no. 129 (June-July 2013)
Pages 21, 22, 51, 52, 85, & 86


September 19.  In a speech delivered in Zurich, former British Prime Minister Winston Churchill invites European countries to constitute the “United States of Europe,” a project supported by the United States.


March 17.  Belgium, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the United Kingdom sign the Treaty of Brussels -- or pact of the Western Union --, which organizes a defensive alliance among the participating states.

April 16.  Creation of the Organization for European Economic Co-operation (OEEC), designed to facilitate the distribution of the American economic “aid” to Europe (Marshall Plan).  In 1960 this will be replaced by the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), enlarged to include the United States and Canada.

May 7-10.  Congress of Europe in The Hague.  Eight hundred delegates meet in the Dutch capital to discuss the means of building a political and economic union.


April 4.  Signing in Washington of the North Atlantic pact by Belgium, France, Canada, Denmark, the United States, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Norway, the Netherlands, Portugal, and the United Kingdom.  The treaty, defensive in nature, gives birth to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), its integrated military organ.

May 5.  The Treaty of London sets up the Council of Europe, an intergovernmental organism that adopts treaties on social and cultural matters.  In 1950, it adopts the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, whose application is guaranteed by the European Court of Human Rights.  Its seat is in Strasbourg.


May 9.  In a statement drafted by Jean Monnet, the plan’s general commissioner, French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman calls for Franco-German cooperation in the area of coal and steel production, within an organization open to the other countries of the Old Continent (Schuman Plan)  This will be the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC).


April 18.  Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) sign in Paris the treaty establishing the ECSC.  Taking effect the following year (July 23, 1952), for a period of fifty years, the treaty expired on July 22, 2002.


August 30.  The French National Assembly rejects the creation of a European Defense Community (EDC).

October 23.  The Paris agreements found the Western European Union (WEU), which joins France, the FRG, the United Kingdom, Italy and the Benelux.  They are ratified on May 9, 1955.  West Germany recovers full sovereignty and is authorized to join the Atlantic alliance.


December 9.  The Council of Europe adopts the European flag, a circle with twelve stars on a blue field, “symbol of perfection and plenitude.”


March 25.  The Six sign the Treaties of Rome setting up the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM).  The former creates a customs union implying the free circulation of products, persons, and capital; the latter’s goal is to build a common civil nuclear industry.


July 3-12.  The Six, meeing at the Stresa (Italy) Conference, define the principles of a Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) intended to permit rapid modernization of European agriculture: common markets, communitarian preference, and financial solidarity.


January 4.  Birth of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) with the Stockholm Convention, signed by Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Switzerland.  Conceived by the British, it is intended as a counterweight to the EEC.


Summer.  Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom formulate an official application to join the EEC.  General de Gaulle expresses his hostility to the entry of the British.

October 19.  The Fouchet Plan, which advocates a union of states outside the protection offered by the Atlantic alliance, is rejected by France’s European partners.  The Belgians and the Dutch wish the United Kingdom to be a member, and Italy demands greater supranationality.  A second version of the plan will be presented in January of the following year.


January 14.  The members of the EEC adopt the first CAP measures.  A European Agricultural Guarantee Fund (EAGF) is born.  The CAP takes effect in July.

April 17.  The summit of the Six organized in Paris resolves to bury the Fouchet Plan.

May 15.  In a famous press conference, General de Gaulle castigates a supranational and Atlanticist Europe, denouncing its “myths” and “fictions.”


January 14.  De Gaulle rejects the Nassau Agreements on the delivery of American Polaris missiles and uses his veto to prevent the entry of the British into the Common Market.  Negotiations with all candidate countries are adjourned.

January 22.  Paris and Bonn sign a friendship and cooperation treaty , called the “Élysée Treaty.”  It has three parts: foreign policy, defense, and culture.  It creates the Franco-German Youth Office.

July 20.  Signing of the Yaoundé (Cameroon) Convention associating the EEC with eighteen African states.  It anticipates financial and commercial aid as well as a system of free trade zones between the EEC and the former French and Belgian colonies on the African continent.


April 8.  Treaty of Brussels, merging the executive bodies of the EEC, the ECSC, and EURATOM.  A single Council and a single Commission for the three Communities are created.  The treaty takes effect on January 1, 1967.

July 1.  Beginning of the “empty chair” crisis.  Disagreeing with the financing rules of the CAP proposed by the Commission, France withdraws her representatives from the Council and breaks off negotiations.  A compromise -- called the “Luxembourg Compromise” -- is found on January 29 of the following year:  unanimity is maintained in the voting procedure for a community plan when a country’s vital interests are in play.


November 27.  General de Gaulle’s second veto of United Kingdom membership.  Dublin and Copenhagen had submitted a new application two months earlier (May 11).


July 1.  The customs union takes effect eighteen months earlier than originally planned.  A common foreign tariff is established on the EEC’s borders.


December 1-2.  The Hague Conference.  The Six agree to open negotiations with candidate countries, agree on the financial rules of the CAP, and announce that they want ultimately to create an economic and monetary union (EMU).


October 20.  Adoption of the first provisions of the Common Fisheries Policy (CFP).


April 10.  The Basel Accords establish the European currency snake (the “Snake in the tunnel”).

July 22.  Agreement is reached in Brussels on a free trade pact between the Six and Austria, Finland, Iceland, Portugal, Sweden, and Switzerland (all member of the EFTA -- cf. supra).

September 26.  In a referendum on Norway’s membership in the Common Market, the “No” wins with 53.5% of the vote.  Oslo had applied for membership in 1962, and again in July 1967.  


January 1.  Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom join the EEC.


December 9-10.  At the Paris summit, the Nine decide that the European Parliament will be elected by direct universal suffrage and to meet as the European Council three times a year to make broad decisions on where the community is headed.


February 28.  Signing of the Lomé (Togo) Convention between the EEC and forty-six countries in the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States.

March 18.  Launching of the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF).  It participates in the development of the least well-off regions of member countries by financing studies and programs.

June 5.  The British approve keeping the United Kingdom in the EEC (67.2% “Yes”).

July 22.  The Treaty of Brussels widens the European Parliament’s budgetary powers and creates the European Court of Auditors (ECA).  It takes effect two years later.

August 1.  Thirty-three European countries, the United States, Canada, and the USSR sign in Helsinki (Finland) the final stage of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe (CSCE).  The agreements confirm 1945 borders.


March 13.  Establishment of the European Monetary System (EMS).  It replaces the European currency snake and institutes a unit of accounting -- the ECU -- whose value is calculated based on a “basket” of currencies.  The United Kingdom does not take part.

June 7-10.  The citizens of the member states elect for the first time their European deputies (410 seats).  The abstention rate is around 40%.


January 1.  Greece enters the EEC.

October 13.  The foreign ministers of the Ten commit to consultations on questions of foreign policy affecting the countries of the continent as a whole.


January 25.  The Ten sign an historic compromise making official a common policy on fisheries and aquaculture.

March 21.  Readjustment of the currency principles within the EMS.  The French franc, the Italian lira, and the Irish pound are devalued, while the German mark, the Dutch florin, the Danish crown, and the Belgian franc are revalued.

June 29.  The European Commission calls for reducing steel production by almost 27 million tons, which represents the suppression of 150,000 jobs.

December 4-6.  Failure of the Athens European Council on agricultural policy and lowering London’s contribution to the community budget.   The credits for paying off British contributions are frozen.


February 14.  The European Parliament adopts the Draft Treaty Establishing the European Union (“Spinelli report”).  Nothing comes of this document.

June 14-17.  In the second European elections, the overall rate of abstention reaches almost 42% (43.3% in France).

June 25-26.  After five years of discussions, the European Council, meeting at Fontainebleau, reaches a compromise on the compensation sum to be paid to London.  The budgetary participation of the British is cut in half.

December 3.  At the Dublin (Ireland) summit, the Ten sign an agreement on wine, a preliminary condition to enlarging the Common Market to include Spain and Portugal.


January 6.  Jacques Delors, former French economy and finance minister (1981-1984), becomes president of the European Commission.  He will remain in this position until 1995.

June 14.  Germany, Belgium, France, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands sign the Schengen (Luxembourg) Agreement proposing the free circulation of persons.  It will be supplemented on June 19, 1990.

June 14.  The European Commission submits to the Council its white paper on the completion of the internal market.  It will fix the cut-off date of December 31, 1992.

June 17.  Launching of the Eureka initiative for “the Europe of technology.”

December 2-3.  At the Luxembourg European Council, the Ten adopt the white paper.  It leads to the Single European Act.


January 1.  Spain and Portugal officially join the EEC, which now has twelve members.

February 17 & 28.  The Twelve sign in Luxembourg and The Hague the Single European Act, which takes effect on July 1, 1987.


April 14.  Turkey submits its application for membership to the EEC.


February 11-12.  The Brussels European Council accepts the “Delors I Package” seeking to finance measures accompanying the common market: reform of the CAP (limitation of agricultural spending), policies of economic and social cohesion.

June 13.  Finance ministers adopt a directive on the the free circulation of capital, which will take effect on July 1, 1990, for eight member countries.  Spain, Greece, Ireland, and Portugal benefit from a postponement until December 31, 1992.


June 15-18.  The third elections to the Strasbourg Parliament see socialists, ecologists, and the far right make gains.  The participation rate remains weak (58.5%).

June 19.  The finance ministers of the Twelve decide to deregulate banking activities beginning on January 1, 1993.  Spain’s currency (the peseta) enters the EMS; the British pound, the Greek drachma, and the Portuguese escudo are still not participating in it.

November 9.  Fall of the Berlin Wall.  German reunification will become effective on October 3, 1990.

December 8-9.  The Strasbourg European Council.  The Twelve approve the reunification of Germany, call for an intergovernmental conference on monetary union before the end of 1990 and adopt -- except for the United Kingdom -- the Charter for the Fundamental Rights of (Social Charter).


May 29.  Signing in Paris of the agreement creating the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) of the former Eastern Bloc countries.

August 4.  The EEC condemns the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq (August 2) and puts in place an embargo against Baghdad.


June 25.  Two Yugoslav republics, Croatia and Slovenia, declare their independence.  Serbia threatens to resort to force.  Paris (hostile to the breakup of the federation) and Bonn (favorable to the recognition of the two new countries) openly oppose each other.

December 23.  Germany recognizes unilaterally the independence of Slovenia and Croatia.  The Twelve will do the same on January 15 of the following year.

December 9-10.  The Maastricht (Netherlands) European Council gives its approval to the draft treaty on the European Union and the creation of a common currency (except for the United Kingdom), the ECU, before January 1, 1999.


February 7.  Signing in Maastricht of the Treaty on European Union.

May 2.  The Twleve and the EFTA sign in Porto (Portugal) a treaty establishing the European Economic Area (EEA).

June 2.  The Danes reject (50.7% “No”) the Maastricht Treaty.  They will approve it by 56.8%, after modifications, on May 18, 1993.

September 20.  51% of French voters approve the Maastricht Treaty.


January 1.  Partition of Czechoslovakia into two states, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.


January 1.  Establishment of the European Monetary Institute (EMI).

November 28.  The Norwegians refuse again to join the Union.


January 1.  Entry of three new countries: Austria, Finland, and Sweden.

January 23.  Luxemburger Jacques Santer becomes president of the Commission.

March 21.  Signature in Paris of the European Stability Pact (diplomacy to prevent border conflicts).

March 27.  Taking effect of the Schengen Agreements in seven countries (Germany, Belgium, Spain, France, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal).

July 26.  Creation of the European Police Office (Europol).

November 27-28.  Launching of the Barcelona Process creating a partnership between the Union and twelve countries of the Mediterranean south.


March 27.  Because of the risks linked to “mad cow” disease (BSE), the European Commission decrees an embargo on British exports of beef.

November 19.  Demonstration of European rail workers in Brussels against the deregulation of trains advocated by the Commission.


March 16.  Euromarch for jobs and against the closing of the Renault factory in Vilvorde (Belgium).

October 2.  Signing of the Amsterdam Treaty.


January 1.  Launching of the euro on the financial markets of eleven countries: Germany, Austria, Belgium, Spain, Finland, France, Irleand, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, and Portugal.  The Central European Bank replaces the EMI.

March 24-25.  The Italian Romano Prodi assumes leadership of the Commission.

May 1.  The Amsterdam Treaty takes effect.

June 3-4.  The Cologne European Council names Spaniard Javier Solana st the Union’s high representative for the Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP).


June 23.  Signing of the Cotonou Agreement between the Union and the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of States.

December 7-11.  Signing of the Treaty of Nice and proclamation of the Charter of Fundamental Rights.


January 1.  Greece joins the eurozone.

June 8.  The Treaty of Nice is rejected by the Irish in a referendum, then finally approved, after modifications, in October 2002.


January 1.  The euro is put in circulation in twelve states.


January 30.  As Paris and Berlin oppose it, Denmark, Spain, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, and the United Kingdom support the war against Iraq.

September 15.  The Swedes reject the adoption of the euro in their countruy.


May 1.  Entry into the Union of ten countries: Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Slovenia.

June 10-13.  The sixth elections to Parliament see a record abstention record of 56% (57% in France).

November 18.  Parliament “invests” the new Commission presided over by José Manuel Barroso of Portugal.


January 12.  The eurodeputies approve the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE) by a large majority.

May 29.  The French reject the TCE (54.6% “No”).  They are followed by the Dutch on June 1, with 61.6% of the vote.

October 1.  Opening of membership negotiations with Turkey.


January 1.  Bulgaria and Rumania enter the Union.  Slovenia joins the eurozone.

August.  Beginning of the international financial crisis.

October 18-19.  The Lisbon European Council approves a treaty that is a twin of the TCE.

December 21.  The countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Malta join the Schengen Area.


January 1.  Cyprus and Malta adopt the euro.

February 14.  After the revision of the Constitution, on February 4, the French Parliament ratifies the Treaty of Lisbon.

June 12.  The Irish reject the Treaty of Lisbon by referendum.  It will be approved, with modifications, on October 2, 2009.

December 1.  Switzerland enters the Schengen Area.


January 1.  Slovakia enters the eurozone.

November 5.  Beginning of the debt crisis in the eurozone.

November 19.  Herman Van Rompuy of Belgium is named president of the European Council by the Twenty-Seven.  Catherine Ashton of the United Kingdom becomes high representative for foreign affairs.


May 9.  Creation of the European Financial Stability Facility.

May 12-25.  Adoption of austerity plans in Spain, Portugal, and Italy.

June 17.  The Twenty-Seven adopt the “Europe 2020” strategy.

November 28.  The Union and the IMF agree on a bailout plan for Ireland.


January 1.  Estonia adopts the euro.

May 4 & 16.  The Union and the IMF grant aid of 78 billion euros to Portugal.

July 15 & 21.  Second bailout plan for Greece.


March 1.  The Union recognizes Serbia as a candidate country.

March 2.  Adoption of the European Fiscal Compact (TSCG) and the European Stability Mechanism (ESM).

October 12.  The Union receives the Nobel Peace Prize.

December 13.  Agreement on the supervision of banks.


February 7-8.  After failing to do so in November 2012, the Twenty-Seven agree on a reduced 2014-2020 budget. Eurodeputies reject it a week later.

March 16-25.  The bailout plan is rejected by the Cypriot Parliament.  An agreement to grant 10 billion euros in aid will be reached.

July 1.  Croatia is to enter the Union.